NCLEX-RN | Introduction to psychology - Depression and major depressive disorder | NCLEX-RN(Voice of a character) major depressive disorder Which sometimes refers only to depression, Characterized by prolonged helplessness And slackness for the future. People with this disorder have low self-esteem And very strong feelings of worthlessness.
They also lack the energy to do things that they enjoyed, much fewer things They should do, or the things they do not enjoy. They tend to feel socially isolated And have a problem focusing on important tasks And they have trouble making decisions.
And low mood tends to penetrate all aspects of their lives. There are a number of physical symptoms that go along with depression.
Fatigue, so feel exhausted People with depression also tend to show Weight fluctuations. So much weight gain or much weight is lost. And they may also harden the tongue Or they're too old.
And I think that these physical symptoms Often disappear, because in Western cultures, As in the US, we tend to think about depression In terms of moods or terms of emotional states.
But to individuals in some Eastern cultures, Especially cultures in cases where this may seem inappropriate Delve into or talk about feelings and feelings, People in these cultures tend to think about depression And experience depression in terms Of these physical symptoms, so it's really important because these are not reduced.
Depression or depressive symptoms They are the number one reason people are looking for Mental Health Services. And, because of that, some people call it Colds of mental disorders.
And I like this term for several reasons and I do not like it for other things What I love is that it's a catch How pervasive this disorder is; It is estimated that 13% of men and 22% of women, From around the world, can meet the criteria for depression At least once in their lives.
One study showed that height as 31% of college students may experience this disorder. And these are really high numbers. And so, in this way, I think this term fits. However, I think that the term colds Does not really capture the severity of this disorder.
Because depression is not only felt down once in a while. And do not feel sadness or sorrow at the appropriate times, which is only a normal part of life. And I think that term reduces that part Of the term. Depression can be caused by an event in life, Like loss or separation, but it does not have to be.
It also does not usually appear alone. It is really very common for people with depression To get other disorders such as anxiety disorders. And I write in this blue color Kind of depression, but I kind of We'll be bored now, so let me go through it.
So there are a number of factors that may be involved I'm depressed and I'm going to split them into three categories: biological factors, Psychological factors, And socio-cultural or environmental factors. And let me, let me take a moment to enjoy OK First of all, we know from the studies of her family and twins That there is a genetic component to depression.
And we also know from studies that are used Functional imaging that people with depression Show decreased action in the frontal cortex. And it can be associated with problems With people making decisions With depression tend to be As well as the difficulties in creating operations.
Researchers also found lower levels of activity In the brain reward circuits. And this can help explain why people with depression can not find pleasure in actions They are once found to be enjoying themselves Depression was also associated with Some neurotransmitters and neurotransmitter regulation And I'll shorten it here by writing NT for a neurotransmitter.
Studies have shown that people with depression May have fewer serotonin and noradrenaline receptors. And I think all this research is amazing. I think it's really important. And it's really convincing, in that way Those research findings that include neuroscience are usually.
But with what has been said, I really want to warn you of me Simplify these biological factors. To give an example of why I say this, I want to talk about the relationship between A particular gene leads to serotonin and depression.
And this gene is known as 5-HTTLPR, And I'll write it down. And a lot of findings have shown that this gene is involved in depression, but in practice, It is only associated with depression if the individual With the garden is in a stressful environment.
But the story did not really end there, It's even more complicated. Because it turns out that if the individual With this genetic trait is placed in heat and charge In the environment, they actually show a Decreased risk of depression. And this is something we still do not fully understand, We are still trying to figure out why it could be.
But more importantly, I think it really shows us Some complex biological factors can be Let's go over some psychological factors Which may affect depression. One theory is based on the idea of helplessness being studied This theory assumes that if a person Exposed to situations that deter you again and again, Without any power to change or control them, they may begin to feel helpless In a manner that can lead to depression.
So if someone is exposed to prolonged stress because of Family life or bullying or some other reason Because they have no control over Their helplessness could get out of control and they may stop trying to change their situation Because they perceive it as completely helpless.
And this is a behavioral theory Or through thinking about depression, But there are cognitive theories about it as well. And these theories tend to focus on thoughts Or these beliefs, with repetitions, which can cause depression.
And while it's true that everyone has Destructive or negative self-thoughts from time to time, In general, we can get away from them, And we can understand what we think It is not entirely logical.
But sometimes people can get caught In these thought patterns and they may put too much Focus on negative thoughts and actions and experiences. And when they think about these things, When they turn them over and over again in their minds, It is possible that these cognitive distortions May leads to depression.
Another cognitive theory about depression Focuses on the concept of association or explanation style. Now when we go about our daily lives, Of course, we try to understand and explain the events taking place around us.
And when we do, we can associate What we see to internal or external factors So this is something I did? Or is it something that happened because of something totally out of my control? Did I get a bad grade on the test that I did not learn? That would be an internal reason.
Or did I get a bad grade because of the teacher That he did a really unfair examination? What will be an external factor? People with depression tend to associate Negative experiences with internal factors.
So maybe they'll think he's a friend Do not call or give me the text because they are not likable Or unloved and not because they were in the movies With their family and perhaps their phone was turned off. In addition, they tend to see negative experiences Because they are stable, so they think Because they will continue to happen in the future And they also tend to think they are global, Then they may assume that one friend is not calling them back Symbolizes somehow that none of their friends likes them And together these things, this internal association, These stable affiliations, and the global affiliations, This is a pessimistic association And it may make some people Particularly vulnerable to depression.
And there are many other psychological theories About depression Things related to dealing with style or self-esteem, but it can actually be difficult to know if These things cause depression Or if they are the result of it So that it became a pessimistic internalization style Leads to depression or makes people depressed Do you have to be pessimistic? Not always clear.
Environmental and sociocultural factors can also give a Strong effect on depression. Have a friend or partner or roommate With depression can actually increase the likelihood that people around them will also develop depression.
And although we do not know exactly why it is, Some researchers argue that it may be necessary to do so With reflections, where friends talk On negative issues and events. But instead of discussing how to solve them, They focus on the negative emotions Dwell on future problems and occurrences.
And at a certain level, this kind of normal. This is perfectly normal for close friends Take on some of the negative emotions Of the other, as being sad when they lose someone who is close to them or become angry If they were discarded by their partner.
It's just a natural empathy. But the same empathy that allows us to console Our friends are in distress, maybe too The reason that depression seems to be spreading We also know that people with low socioeconomic status, especially those living in poverty, Are more likely to develop depression, As well as those who are struggling to keep up the work Or simply lost work.
And there are other environmental factors as well. Social isolation, child abuse, and even prejudice Everyone was involved in causing depression.
And think about it in terms of prejudices. If someone grew up in a household Because there are negative feelings about homosexuality And if they grow up and start accepting the same sexual attraction, They probably internalized the prejudices after years Of hearing it can lead to depression.
Okay, so step back for a moment, We said that we have biological factors, Psychological and socio-social factors, And environmental factors.
And when we put all these things together, We accept what is known as a biopsychosocial model Of depression and this theory confirms Because all these factors play a role.
So some people have a genetic predisposition Mode, but it only comes if The situation is right or if we are developing Certain patterns of thinking.
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